About 150 years ago, the first vacuum cleaner was still operated with hand pumps, but how it is today? How does a vacuum cleaner?
The first vacuum cleaner ever, mid-19th century have been developed in the US and were still operated by hand. A large air pump was mounted on a horse-drawn cart and took care of the necessary vacuum which then passed via a long tube in the respective premises. Later models were then partially driven by electric fans, but also partly from internal combustion engines and came modern devices that only a little closer. As a rule, provided a reciprocating pump for the required air pressure and the air sucked in was then passed through a fabric filter, which should separate the dirt particles. Only in the middle of the 20th century there was relatively small and lightweightvacuum cleaners , which are relatively similar to modern models. But how do the origin and what makes them better than the historical predecessor? We take a closer look at the interior of a commercial vacuum cleaner bag and try to explain the most important components.
No engine, no fun
At the heart of the current vacuum cleaner is an electric motor which generates the required vacuum inside the enclosure. Most manufacturers rely on a so-called universal or Allstrommoter who looks rich technically, can be operated with both DC and AC. This allows very high speeds of up to 30,000 rpm, are due to the associated heat generation but also depend on an active cooling. This type engine can be found today in virtually all electrical appliances and tools, and a few years ago even electric locomotives were driven so. Significantly rarer in modern vacuum cleaners a shaded pole motor used. The is indeed somewhat simpler, robust and promises a long service life, the drawback of the low efficiency of only about 30% (Universal Motor:> 50%) prevails here but.
A compressor provides the necessary pressure
The next critical component is located directly behind the engine and provides the necessary vacuum, a compressor. The compacted the absorbed air, thus ensuring a positive pressure at the output and a negative pressure at the inlet. As compressor come in vacuum cleaners usually called radial compressor used. Here the air is passed through one (or more) rotating impeller, which continuously feeds the airflow energy. This type compressor is characterized by a high air flow rate and a still very constant pressure.
The vacuum thus produced is passed through the tube and the suction tube and provides the necessary air flow.The is first passed through the air-permeable dust bag which filters out most of the sucked particles and keeps inside the bag. Following the air is often still passed through a significantly finer particle filter where then particles are secreted in the micrometer range. Modern vacuum cleaners with HEPA filters retain 99.9% of the filters dirt particles inside and only a fraction comes back into the room air. After filtering, the purified air is directed by the way for cooling by the engine. Only in this way are compact and lightweight device, how it is usual, this all possible.